About This Site

This site displays the data behind Appendix A of the opening brief filed by the Presidential Electors in Chiafalo v. Washington and Colorado v. Baca, Supreme Court Nos. 19-465 and 19-518.

Only states that have or, in the case of Idaho, have had laws purporting to bind presidential electors are listed.


P = requires a pledge or oath

D = directs how electors shall vote

R = removes electors for disapproved vote

F = fines electors for disapproved vote

C = declares a disapproved vote criminal


1) Any state that permits express removal is placed into that category, even if also permits a fine or other sanction.

2) States are categorized based on the actual language in their statutes, not court interpretations or unilateral executive action from 2016.

3) In the chart at opening brief page 1a and in the initial version of this document, the Vermont law was counted as having taken effect in 1979. In fact the law was passed during the 1979 legislative session but was not effective until May of 1980.

4) A permanently archived version of this table can be found at https://perma.cc/8YUH-BBSS.

5) If you notice error or incompleteness, please email info@equalcitizens.us.